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元宇宙技術綜述

王文喜 周芳 萬月亮 寧煥生

王文喜, 周芳, 萬月亮, 寧煥生. 元宇宙技術綜述[J]. 工程科學學報, 2022, 44(4): 744-756. doi: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2022.01.15.003
引用本文: 王文喜, 周芳, 萬月亮, 寧煥生. 元宇宙技術綜述[J]. 工程科學學報, 2022, 44(4): 744-756. doi: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2022.01.15.003
WANG Wen-xi, ZHOU Fang, WAN Yue-liang, NING Huan-sheng. A survey of metaverse technology[J]. Chinese Journal of Engineering, 2022, 44(4): 744-756. doi: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2022.01.15.003
Citation: WANG Wen-xi, ZHOU Fang, WAN Yue-liang, NING Huan-sheng. A survey of metaverse technology[J]. Chinese Journal of Engineering, 2022, 44(4): 744-756. doi: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2022.01.15.003

元宇宙技術綜述

doi: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2022.01.15.003
基金項目: 國家自然科學基金資助項目(61872038)
詳細信息
    通訊作者:

    E-mail: zhoufang@ies.ustb.edu.cn

  • 中圖分類號: TG142.71

A survey of metaverse technology

More Information
  • 摘要: 元宇宙作為一個新興的概念受到了產業界、學術界、媒體界及公眾的廣泛關注,國內外眾多公司也紛紛在“元宇宙”領域布局,但布局的背后離不開強大的技術支持。本文從技術維度深入剖析元宇宙。首先,從科學與技術的角度論述元宇宙的概念及內涵,并總結了目前從業者、專家以及學者對元宇宙的不同見解。其次,概述了元宇宙相關關鍵技術,包括網絡及運算技術(5G、6G、物聯網、云計算、霧計算及邊緣計算)、管理技術(能耗管理、資源管理、會話管理及時空一致性管理)、虛實對象連接、建模與管理技術(X聯網、身份建模、社會計算、去中心化管理技術)、虛實空間交互與融合技術(拓展現實、電子游戲技術、腦機接口技術)等。元宇宙不宜稱為新技術,而是IT新技術的綜合運用。技術的進步與發展,將為元宇宙的實現和應用奠定堅實的基礎,同時元宇宙的發展也會促進現有技術的升級換代。最后,展望了元宇宙發展面臨的諸多挑戰,以清晰認識、理智決策、穩步探索元宇宙。

     

  • 圖  1  元宇宙技術路線圖

    Figure  1.  Roadmap of the metaverse technology

    表  1  從業者、專家以及機構對元宇宙的不同看法與見解

    Table  1.   Different opinions of practitioners and experts on the metaverse

    NameAffiliationsDescription
    Chen G, Dong HPeking UniversityThe metaverse is a virtual world connected and created through science and technology, mapped and interacted with the real world, and has a digital living space of a novel social system[3].
    Zuckerberg MFacebookThe metaverse is a world composed of countless interconnected virtual communities where people can meet, work, and entertainment through virtual reality devices (e.g., headphones and eyes), smartphone applications, and other devices[4].
    Baszucki DRobloxThe metaverse is a virtual world that connects everyone. Everyone has a virtual identity and can do anything desired. The metaverse has eight characteristics: identity, friends, immersion, low latency, diversity, anywhere, economy, and civilization[5].
    Redmond ENikeThe metaverse spans the physical/digital gap between reality and virtual reality [6].
    Kimber CPosterscopeThe metaverse is an observable digital universe composed of millions of digital galaxies[6].
    Shabro LArmy Futures CommandThe metaverse is a fuzzy digital hybrid reality. The things and people in the metaverse are irreplaceable and infinite and are not limited by the traditional physical space[6].
    Kicks PBITKRAFT VenturesMetaverse: a lasting and real-time digital world, providing individuals with a series of agency, social existence, and shared space consciousness. It has a wide range of virtual economic systems[6].
    Bellinghausen BAlissia SpacesThe metaverse is a bridge between the real and virtual worlds[6].
    Redding NRedding FuturesThe metaverse is an infinite space where people can do everything physically and still have sensory stimuli such as vision, hearing, touch, and smell[6].
    Piech EAMP CreativeThe metaverse is a world that no longer pays attention to the difference between our digital avatars and bodies. It is a world where we are surrounded by information (e.g., work, entertainment, and education) using intelligent lenses and brain–computer interface devices. It is the next generation of the internet[6].
    Ning H SUniversity of science and technology BeijingThe general cyberspace (metaverse) is a unified description of conventional cyberspace and cyber-enabled physical, social, and thinking spaces formed based on ubiquitous connections between things and the deep convergence of spaces[7].
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  2  近年來典型的物聯網研究以支持元宇宙的發展

    Table  2.   Typical research on the IoT for metaverse in recent years

    LayerAuthorTitleReference
    Sensing layerGong, et alA remote attestation mechanism for the sensing layer nodes for the Internet of Things[16]
    Wang, et alRF sensing in the Internet of Things: a general deep learning framework[17]
    Ye, et alAn efficient authentication and access control scheme for perception layer of Internet of Things[18]
    Norouzi, et alGAPSO-SVM: An IDSS-based energy-aware clustering routing algorithm for IoT perception layer[19]
    Kou, et alA lightweight three-factor user authentication protocol for the information perception of IoT[20]
    Network layerShafiq, et alCorrAUC: A malicious bot-iot traffic detection method in IoT network using machine-learning techniques[21]
    Hafeez, et alIoT-KEEPER: Detecting malicious IoT network activity using online traffic analysis at the edge[22]
    Application layerSun and AnsariDynamic resource caching in the IoT application layer for smart cities[23]
    Sun and AnsariTraffic load balancing among brokers at the IoT application layer[24]
    Deogirikar and VidhateAn improved publish-subscribe method in application layer protocol for IoT[25]
    Mohanta, et alTrustworthy Management in Decentralized IoT Application using Blockchain[26]
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  3  云計算、霧計算和邊緣計算的比較

    Table  3.   Comparison of cloud computing, fog computing, and edge computing

    ParadigmDeploymentNetwork access typeNetwork latencyReal-time AbilityTransmissionScalability degreeBandwidth requirementsLocation awarenessMobility supportServer nodes locationService typeUser deviceTarget application
    Cloud computingCentralizationWANHighLowDevice to cloudHighFocusNoLowWithin the InternetGlobal servicesMultiple terminalsGeneral Internet application
    Fog computingDistributionLANMediumMediumDevice to device/cloudHighNon-focusYesHighBetween terminal device and cloudLocalized servicesMultiple mobile terminalsInternet of Things or mobile application
    Edge computingDistributionLAN/WLANLowHighDevice to deviceHighNon-focusYesHighAt the edge of the local networkLocalized servicesMultiple mobile terminalsInternet of Things or mobile application
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  4  資源管理列表

    Table  4.   Resource management technology list

    StageTechnologyAbbreviationDescription
    Resource namingResource description frameworkRDFA language used to express resource information on the world wide web.
    Web ontology languageWOLUsed for semantic description of ontology.
    Physical markup languagePMLA common standard used for describing all natural objects, processes, and environments.
    Resource addressingDomain name systemDNSUsed to automatically resolve and exchange of network domain names and IP addresses.
    Object name systemONSObject name service proposed by EPCglobal
    U code resolution protocolU code RPUbiquitous encoding resolution protocol proposed by UID Center
    Resource discoveryDistributed Hash TableDHTA distributed storage method where each client is responsible for a small routing rqnge and storing a small part of data without a server to realize the addressing and storage of the whole DHT network.
    Resource allocationDynamic Programming MethodDPMA dynamic resource allocation framework for synchronizing metaverse with IoT services and data[50].
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  5  典型游戲引擎概述

    Table  5.   Overview of representative game engines

    YearEngine nameCompanyRepresentative workWebsite
    1993RenderWareCriterion SoftwareGrand Theft Auto; Chinese Paladin; XuanYuan Sword; etc.https://www.renderware.com/
    1998UnrealEpicUnreal Tournament 3; Gears of War; PuBG: Battlegrounds; Mass Effect; BioShock; etc.https://www.unrealengine.com/zh-CN/
    2002Cryengine3CrytekFar cry; Crysis; Sniper Ghost Warrior; The Climb; etc.https://www.cryengine.com/
    2004SourceValveCounter-Strike: Source; Half-Life; DoTA 2; Vindictus; etc.https://developer.valvesoftware.com/wiki/Main_Page
    2005IWInfinity WardCall of Duty; Quantum of Solace; etc.https://www.infinityward.com/
    2005UnityUnity TechnologiesTemple Run; Genshin; Monument Valley; Arena of Valor: 5v5 Arena Game; League of Legends: Wild Rift; etc.https://unity.cn/
    2006FrostbiteEA DICENeed for Speed: The Run; Plants vs Zombies: Garden Warfare; Need for Speed; etc.https://www.ea.com/frostbite
    2006RockstarRockstar GamesRockstar Games Presents Table Tennis; Grand Theft Auto; Red Dead Redemption; Max Payne 3; etc.https://www.rockstargames.com/zh/
    2010Coscos2d-x/CarrotFantasy; Warpath; Anipop; etc.https://www.cocos.com/
    2011CreationBethesda Game StudiosThe Elder Scrolls; Fallout; Starfield; etc.https://shop.creationengine.com/
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-01-15
  • 網絡出版日期:  2022-03-14
  • 刊出日期:  2022-04-02

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