Metal oxide semiconductor has good stability and gas sensitivity, so gas sensor is the earliest gas sensor developed from metal oxide semiconductor. From 1953 to 1968, the research and production of metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors were unified, but the gas sensitive materials used at that time were mainly bulk materials. With the continuous exploration of material science and technology, nanomaterials began to flourish at the end of the 20th century. The appearance of nanomaterials has promoted the development of gas sensors to a certain extent because the characteristics of metal oxide semiconductors are highly dependent on materials. Over the past decades, nanomaterial gas sensors have been widely used in the field of gas sensing due to their high sensitivity, high selectivity, and potential to quickly detect harmful gases in different environments. However, with the improvement of gas detection accuracy, a single metal oxide semiconductor material has been difficult to meet the requirements of gas sensing. Therefore, metal oxide semiconductor materials are constructed into a variety of different nanostructures to achieve the detection limit and sensitivity improvement of gas sensors. Through comparison, we found that compared with other dimensional structure nanomaterials, one-dimensional structure nanomaterials have obvious advantages in improving H2S gas sensitivity due to their larger specific surface area and unique electron transport characteristics. Therefore, this paper mainly takes H2S gas as the main body, reviews the characteristics of metal oxide semiconductor based one-dimensional structure nanomaterials and the research progress of one-dimensional structure nanomaterials H2S gas sensors. It is worth noting that the different characteristics of common one-dimensional nanostructures, such as nanowires, nanorods, nanofibers and nanotubes, are analyzed and summarized. At the same time, also briefly introduced the detection of hydrogen sulfide gas, in the military, medical, industrial and life aspects of great significance. Secondly, P-type MOS and N-type MOS are introduced, and the working principle of MOS gas sensor is discussed. Furthermore, the effect of metal oxide semiconductor based one-dimensional structure nanomaterials on H2S gas sensing performance and the gas sensitivity mechanism are analyzed. Finally, the performance improvement and future application prospect of metal oxide semiconductor based one-dimensional nanomaterial H2S gas sensor are prospected.